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1.Noninvasive detection of concealed explosives: depth profiling through opaque plastics by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.
Petterson IE1, López-López M, García-Ruiz C, Gooijer C, Buijs JB, Ariese F. Anal Chem. 2011 Nov 15;83(22):8517-23. doi: 10.1021/ac2018102. Epub 2011 Oct 17.
The detection of explosives concealed behind opaque, diffusely scattering materials is a challenge that requires noninvasive analytical techniques for identification without having to manipulate the package. In this context, this study focuses on the application of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) with a picosecond pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector for the noninvasive identification of explosive materials through several millimeters of opaque polymers or plastic packaging materials. By means of a short (250 ps) gate which can be delayed several hundred picoseconds after the laser pulse, the ICCD detector allows for the temporal discrimination between photons from the surface of a sample and those from deeper layers. TRRS was applied for the detection of the two main isomers of dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene as well as for various other components of explosive mixtures, including akardite II, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite.
2.Voltammetric determination of the stabilizing additives acardite II, centralite I and diphenylamine in propellants.
Bergens A1, Lundström K, Asplund J. Talanta. 1985 Sep;32(9):893-9.
A method for the determination of the stabilizing additives Acardite II, Centralite I and diphenylamine in single- and double-base propellants has been developed, based on oxidative differential pulse voltammetry with a glassy-carbon electrode in a 1:1 v v acetonitrile-methanol medium. The voltammetric behaviour of Acardite II and Centralite I was briefly studied to find the proper experimental conditions. For analysis, aliquots of a crude sample extract in dichloromethane are added directly, with no prior treatment, to the measurement cell. The analysis is performed by the standard-addition method. The relative standard deviation is typically 1.0-1.5%. The concentration range accessible with the differential pulse technique, 0.5-100 muM, is quite sufficient for the levels of stabilizers used in powders and propellants. The utility of the method is exemplified by the monitoring of stabilizer consumption in three different propellants subjected to accelerated degradation at 90 degrees .
3.Comprehensive non-targeted analysis of contaminated groundwater of a former ammunition destruction site using 1H-NMR and HPLC-SPE-NMR/TOF-MS.
Godejohann M1, Heintz L, Daolio C, Berset JD, Muff D. Environ Sci Technol. 2009 Sep 15;43(18):7055-61.
The aim of the present study was to explore the capabilities of the combination of 1H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance) mixture analysis and HPLC-SPE-NMR/TOF-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to solid-phase extraction and nuclear magnetic resonance and time-of-flight mass spectrometry) for the characterization of xenobiotic contaminants in groundwater samples. As an example, solid-phase extracts of two groundwater samples taken from a former ammunition destruction site in Switzerland were investigated. 1H NMR spectra of postcolumn SPE enriched compounds, together with accurate mass measurements, allowed the structural elucidation of unknowns. This untargeted approach allowed us to identify expected residues of explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT), Hexogen (RDX) and Octogen (HMX), degradation products of TNT (1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (1,3,5-TNB), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-4,6-DNT), 3,5-dinitrophenol (3,5-DNP), 3,5-dinitroaniline (3,5-DNA), 2,6-dinitroanthranite, and 2-Hydroxy-4,6-dinitrobenzonitrile), benzoic acid, Bisphenol A (a known endocrine disruptor compound), and some toxicologically relevant additives for propelling charges: Centralite I (1,3-diethyl-1,3-diphenylurea), DPU (N,N-diphenylurethane), N,N-diphenylcarbamate (Acardite II), and N-methyl-N-phenylurethane.
4.Gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method for the comparison of smokeless powders.
Mathis JA1, McCord BR. J Chromatogr A. 2003 Feb 21;988(1):107-16.
A gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (LC-ESIMS) method was developed to determine compositional variation in the organic additives of smokeless powders. The method was optimized for the separation and detection of selected powder constituents, including diphenylamine, along with isomers of its nitroso and nitro derivatives, centralite I and II, in addition to dialkylphthalate acid esters. A series of commercially available smokeless powders was prepared by organic liquid extraction and characterized using the LC-ESIMS method. The results demonstrate the differentiation of smokeless powders by their additive profile.
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