Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis, Probiotics That Induce the Formation of Macrophage Extracellular Traps

14 Sep.,2022

 

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Bacillus

are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria used as probiotics for animal and human consumption. They are currently distributed in various commercial forms. Two of the species used as probiotics are

B. licheniformis

and

B. subtilis

. Macrophages are central cells in the immune response, being fundamental in the elimination of microbial pathogens, for which they use various mechanisms, including the formation of extracellular traps (METs). There have been very few studies carried out on the participation of macrophages in response to the interaction of probiotics of the genus

Bacillus

with the host. In this work, we used macrophages from the J774A mouse cell line.1, and we found that they are susceptible to infection by the two

Bacillus

species. However, both species were eliminated as the infection progressed. Using confocal microscopy, we identified the formation of METs from the first hours of infection, which were characterized by the presence of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and citrullinated histone (Hit3Cit). Quantitative data on extracellular DNA release were also obtained; release was observed starting in the first hour of infection. The induction of METs by

B. licheniformis

caused a significant decrease in the colony-forming units (CFU) of

Staphylococcus aureus

. The induction of METS by bacteria of the

Bacillus

genus is a mechanism that participates in controlling the probiotic and potentially pathogenic bacteria such as

S. aureus

. The induction of METs to control pathogens may be a novel mechanism that could explain the beneficial effects of probiotics of the genus

Bacillus.

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Probiotics are considered living microorganisms that help preserve the health of the host who uses them.are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria used as probiotics for animal and human consumption. They are currently distributed in various commercial forms. Two of the species used as probiotics areand. Macrophages are central cells in the immune response, being fundamental in the elimination of microbial pathogens, for which they use various mechanisms, including the formation of extracellular traps (METs). There have been very few studies carried out on the participation of macrophages in response to the interaction of probiotics of the genuswith the host. In this work, we used macrophages from the J774A mouse cell line.1, and we found that they are susceptible to infection by the twospecies. However, both species were eliminated as the infection progressed. Using confocal microscopy, we identified the formation of METs from the first hours of infection, which were characterized by the presence of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and citrullinated histone (Hit3Cit). Quantitative data on extracellular DNA release were also obtained; release was observed starting in the first hour of infection. The induction of METs bycaused a significant decrease in the colony-forming units (CFU) of. The induction of METS by bacteria of thegenus is a mechanism that participates in controlling the probiotic and potentially pathogenic bacteria such as. The induction of METs to control pathogens may be a novel mechanism that could explain the beneficial effects of probiotics of the genus